9. Glossary


Model agnostic, vetted, collection of codes containing atmospheric physical parameterizations and suites for use in NWP along with a framework that connects the physics to host models


The preprocessing software used to create initial condition files to “coldstart” the forecast model. The initial conditions are created from either GFS GRIB2 or NEMSIO data.


The Common Infrastructure for Modeling the Earth (CIME - pronounced “SEAM”) provides a Case Control System for configuring, compiling and executing Earth system models, data and stub model components, a driver and associated tools and libraries.


The Flexible Modeling System (FMS) is a software framework for supporting the efficient development, construction, execution, and scientific interpretation of atmospheric, oceanic, and climate system models.


The GFDL Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (FV3) is a scalable and flexible dynamical core capable of both hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic atmospheric simulations.


National Centers for Environmental Prediction, an arm of the National Weather Service.


The NCEP library source code and utilities required for chgres_cube, the UFS Weather Model, and UPP.


A collection of third-party libraries required to build NCEPLIBS, chgres_cube, the UFS Weather Model, and UPP.


An interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data analysis and visualization. More information can be found at https://www.ncl.ucar.edu.


The NOAA Environmental Modeling System - a software infrastructure that supports NCEP/EMC’s forecast products.


A binary format for atmospheric model output on the native gaussian grid.

Stochastic physics

A package of stochastic schemes used to represent model uncertainty: SKEB (Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter), SPPT (Stochastically Perturbed Physics Tendencies), and SHUM (Specific Humidity)


A collection of primary physics schemes and interstitial schemes that are known to work well together


A Unified Forecast System (UFS) is a community-based, coupled comprehensive Earth system modeling system. The UFS numerical applications span local to global domains and predictive time scales from sub-hourly analyses to seasonal predictions. It is designed to support the Weather Enterprise and to be the source system for NOAA’s operational numerical weather prediction applications


The Unified Post Processing System, developed at NCEP and used operationally for models maintained by NCEP. The UPP has the capability to post-process output from a variety of NWP models, including FV3.

Weather Model

A prognostic model that can be used for short- and medium-range research and operational forecasts. It can be an atmosphere-only model or be an atmospheric model coupled with one or more additional components, such as a wave or ocean model.